An Introduction to the OBCs: There are four people components among the OBCs as per the Mandal Commission.
First is De-notified & Nomadic Tribes, who don‟t have any OBC character and it‟s proved as a historical blunder of the policy and Governance systems.
Second Category is the Most or extremely Backward classes. They are basically Non–landed castes in the off- farm livelihoods, Service castes (caste based) traditional Occupational castes, Artisans, small time producers involved in the various Handicrafts and majority of them couldn‟t access Power, wealth or social dignity.
Third, BCs are mostly small, marginal or middle farmers involved in the agriculture as land owners or share croppers and also traditionally involved in remunerative occupations like Animal husbandry, Taddy Tapping, weaving, small home based production, Marketing of agricultural or and value added products like cooking Oil or Oil seeds etc.
Some occupations generated profit margins and those BC communities involved in profit making could accumulate surplus capital which was diversified into the quick money generating activities like liquor, hotels, movies and majority of them are accessible to political power.
Fourth Category of people is Muslim, Christian, Buddhist and Jain converts from the SC, ST etc.
As per Sri R. Krishnayya, BC Sankshema Sangham, “Of the 54 lakh central Government employees, only 4, 62, 000 (7.6%) are O B C Employees, and of the 2600 OBC communities, 2550 communities never entered in to the Parliament”.
India was aware of Nomadic Tribes over the last 145 years: The first census based on a direct survey of population took place on 1 January 1853, in the North-Western Provinces and enumeration of caste was initiated in 1865; it continued to be a prominent part of the colonial census till 1931. Aborigine castes (Today‟s Nomadic Tribes) in the Central, Bengal and Madras provinces in the Censes of 1871-72 were enumerated as Mendicants, Devotees, Dancers, Musicians, beggars, Vagabonds and others. British India enacting Criminal Tribes (CT) Act in the same year (1871) also reveals India‟s authorised awareness of about 200 people‟s groups as CTs.
NT, DNT & SNTs in the Constitution of India: In spite of officially acknowledging their presence over the last 150 years; and in spite of 101 amendments to the Constitution of India from inception in 1950 (latest for GST Act in the September 2017); and even after 20 Commissions probed and gave favourable recommendations, Denotified, Nomadic and Semi Nomadic Tribes (NT, DNT, SNTs) were not included in the Constitution of India and their identity is not authenticated as the Citizens of this country.
Criminal Tribes’ Constitutional Identity as depressed classes: Sir Henry Sharp, Educational Commissioner, Government of India prepared a list of „Depressed’ classes in 1917 (Attached as Annexure-1). The definition of the term „depressed classes‟ was discussed in the Indian Legislative council as far back as 1916. It was decided in the Legislative council the term ‘Depressed classes’ should include: (a) Criminal and wandering tribes (b) Aboriginal or hill Tribes and (c) Untouchables.
Ambedkar was instrumental in pushing the CTs out: A representation called as “E Note” was submitted By Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, On 1st May 1932 to The Indian Franchise Committee (Depressed Classes Committee). This representation dramatically changed the opinion of the Colonial government and subsequently the committee declared that “Depressed Classes Committee was of opinion that the term „Depressed classes’ should be applied to only those who are untouchables. That is, those satisfying the tests of untouchbility mentioned in the 1911 cense operation, such as: Are denied access to the interior of the ordinary Hindu temples. Cause pollution (a) by touch (b) within a certain distance”. Thus CTs were pushed out of the depressed classes list.
The First Census Report: Classification of Sudras and service castes in the Central, Bengal and Madras provinces in the Censes 1871-72 were enumerated as „Other castes of Hindus‟, Agriculturists, Pastoral castes, Artisans, weaver, Servants and Labourers, manufacturing castes, engaged in personnel service, selling fish and vegetables, Boating and fishing, shepherds, pot makers, mixed castes, Palm cultivators, barbers, Washer men, others and Outcastes.
Outcastes –aka- Untouchables were included in to the „Depressed classes‟ by early thirties (1932).
The Poona Pact: Poona Pact (Between Gandhi and Ambedkar) text uses the term “Depressed Classes” to denote „Untouchables‟. As per the Pact: 1) There shall be seats reserved for the Depressed Classes, out of general electorate seats in the provincial legislatures. Legislature shall likewise be on the principle of joint electorates and reserved seats by the method of primary election in the manner provided for in clause above for their representation in the provincial legislatures. There shall be no disabilities attached to any one on the ground of his being a member of the Depressed Classes in regard to any election to local bodies or appointment to the public services. Every endeavour shall be made to secure a fair representation of the Depressed Classes in these respects, subject to such educational qualifications as may be laid down for appointment to the Public Services. In every province out of the educational grant, an adequate sum shall be ear-marked for providing educational facilities to the members of Depressed Classes”.
Ambedkar’s opposition for reservations to ‘Touchable’: It‟s noteworthy to observe, that, Ambedkar vehemently argued against the reservations to any other segment of people, who are „touchables‟ including Hill or Aborigine Tribes (Adivasis). For the Thakkar Bapa‟s anxious concern, “what about the reservations for the Hill and Aboriginal Tribes” Ambedkar quipped, by saying “their case is different and I never took the responsibility of everyone in the society, I am concerned about my (untouchable) people”
Thakkar Bapa lobbied for the hill or aboriginal Tribes: Subsequently Hill or Aboriginal Tribes –aka- Adivasis were included in THE SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES LISTS (MODIFICATION) ORDER 1956, so that to become eligible to get reservations in the general electorate seats in the provincial legislatures, along with reservations and privileges in education and Employment at par with the SCs. Birth of Criminal Tribes
The Thugs: Major-general Sir William Henry Sleeman (8 August 1788 – 10 February 1856) was a British soldier and administrator in British India, best known for his work suppressing Thuggee activity in India. Meadows Taylor and Balfour affirm that many Thugs and Pindaris were executed by 1860.
Criminal Tribes (CT) Act enacted after 11 years of suppression of Thugs and Pindaries: Criminal Tribes Bill was introduced in 1871 by J.V. Stephens, member of the viceroy's council. It‟s an irony to note that British India enacted Criminal Tribes (CT) Act in 1871 (after 11 years of suppression of Thugs and Pindaries) to control the „Criminal Tribes‟ –aka- nomadic and Gypsy tribes. In a desperate attempt to link up the nomads with the Thugs and their Criminal ancestry, Indian police Pandits wrote Voulmes of lies and half truths. They created a variety of guides to assist in the identification of such „criminals‟. Policemen collected and published a great deal of information not only on the „illegal‟ activities, but also on the appearance and lifestyle. These groups were categorized by the police under general appearance, composition, language and residence dress, jewellery and marks of identification and mode of begging habits etc. All-India enquiry committee enumerated 136 of these „criminals‟, and as per the third five year plan their population was estimated as four million. Report prepared by the Tribal Cultural Research and Training Institute, (Tribal Welfare Department, Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad) cited 59 sects of Denotified tribes of Andhra Pradesh.
Reformation of the Criminals
Registration: Registration attempted to keep track of the communities under police surveillance, in the habitats where they live. Compulsory registration, identification, finger- printing and such measures must have produced serious psychological consequences on the large number of innocents who were called upon to undergo such humiliations on the mere guilt of association. One consequence, over and above the conditioning of the individual to fear, frustration and defeatism, or reckless aggression, was the incitement to commit the very acts of crime, they are being alleged with.
Settlements: Settlements‟ meant for locating in a special place provided, so that they can be more closely controlled. Many settlements were virtual prisons, except that the able bodied were permitted to work and earn their livelihood during the day, and a little education and medical service were available in a few cases.
Notification: ‘The principle of notification implied that, if in any regional group there were persons found guilty of criminal acts or even believed to be capable of crime, then the entire group was to be notified as a 'criminal tribe.' This procedure must be deemed contrary to all the elementary principles of law and justice.
Severe punishments: Section 23 of the Criminal Tribes Act declared that any person belonging to the category of criminal tribes, if convicted of the same offence for the second time, he will be punished with imprisonment for ten or not less than seven years and on a third or any subsequent conviction with imprisonment for life.
Separating Nomad (CT) children from Parents: After 1911, Powers were given to separate the children from their „criminal‟ parents after the age of six years. In 1920, arrangements were made in Madras to place the children of such groups in certified institutions like Salvation Army.
Passes needed to move from village to village: The instance of getting a pass and reporting oneself to the police led the policeman and village headman to take forced and free labour from the poor. This gave birth to bribery at the local level.
CT act served the selfish interest of the rich and powerful supporting colonial rulers: CT act is an idea of reformation of criminals. The British Government, in the early years of their rule, had to face small groups and gangs who might have been harmed by political enemies or opponents of the new class of landlords or who might have been driven to crime on account of distress. But in practice criminal tribes act was used profitably to fight against secret societies, political activists and nationalist movement leaders from mediocre social and economic backgrounds and finally to suppress lower section of Indian society rebelling against the draconian rule. According to colonial government‟s opinion a criminal could be anyone who resisted the British, or a local high class landlord or high caste member. By this act, colonial government made an attempt to link issues of colonial laws with those of colonial ethnography. But the idea was ostensible because it profited the colonial government on the basis of low paid wage workers. The concerned communities were exploited both by British administrators as well as by high class landlords for their personal uses. Reformation centres and settlements were profitable to the NGOs controlled by upper classes in the Congress party, who could avail funds from the government in the name of reformation and welfare and Salvation Army was an instrument to convert the CTs in to Christianity, by weaning way from the „Hindu‟ influence so that to form as a large support base at the grassroots.
Origin of the Criminal tribes: Centuries ago, Indigenous and aborigine groups of people lived as hunters and fishers and they occupied forests, hilly lands and the coast line. These were the „Dasas‟ and „Dassyus‟ mentioned in the Rigveda, who were the prosperous rulers of their clan kingdoms. These tribes are the original inhabitants of this country. Verrier Elwin called the Baigas, one of the criminal tribes, the original inhabitants of 33 the regions in which they lived. After the establishment of stable kingdoms by the Aryan and along with the growth of feudal economy, followed by the emergence of land hunger amongst the feudal elements, the normal and simple lives of these hunters, herdsmen and other forest nomads was considerably disturbed by the wars and encroachment of the forest abodes along with their Jal, jangal, Jamin.
Some of these defeated tribes lead a vagrant life thereafter in jungles, and hills with no fixed abodes, while majority fled in to the deep jungles and steep hills. While some of them forced to migrate to the plains, were joined with the groups
of people who were born out of the wedlock of upper and lower caste parents, who were called as „Chandals‟ and were put at the funeral grounds and scavenging. The „Daleria‟ people are said to have taken to crime because they were ex-communicated as descendants of a Thakur feudal landlord and a Korba woman. Aryans also destroyed indigenous faith and spiritual systems for the benefit of the Brahmins, while the priests and bards among the tribes were displaced and joined peripatetic nomad groups by swelling their volume. Ranks and files of nomads with their Kinnera,Gandharva and Yaksha strains mentioned in the scriptures were responsible for guarding the under-ground wealth became earth and stone workers, miners, Iron smelters, performers, entertainers, singers and story tellers. Those were responsible for weapon making (Ghadiya Lohars) coin printing (chappar bans). Kings were also using them as infantry to fight their enemies. Advent of Colonial rulers displaced all of them; there were no body to take care about their survival. These occupational orphans also became vagrants and joined the nomad bands albeit in the form of Ghettos.
These nomadic bands use to wander about with their bag and baggage and pitch their rag tag tents on out-skirts of a village or a city or in some secluded and out-of-the-way places. Their disregard of the concepts of private property, their romantic temperament and their peculiar sex life are familiar to many parts of the world. Their routes and schedule of wandering were fixed depending upon their demand and work i.e. availability of raw material for making useful goods.
Steppe Landers are all over the world, wandering from grassland to grassland as cattle breeders, animal sellers, and petty tradesmen; and the gypsy or gypsy-like groups. The colonial forest policies prevented free gazing of the cattle owned by these groups and from collecting forest produce.
The settled and semi-settled groups were deemed to have descended from irregular fighting men or persons uprooted from their original homes due to invasions and political upheavals.
"Almost savages and utterly reckless of life, they are perpetually goaded into crimes. They are forbidden to rest even for a single day, no matter where. The moment the police hear of their arrival, they proceed to drive them away hounding them from village to village with hard words and harder blows from their own or neighbouring thana." Vicissitudes of history, fear and in the desperation of escaping from the brutal State and police, they often break up a tribe into smaller tribes with separate names (beyond recognition or affinity to each other) or with a prefix to the original name of the tribe and untimely number of Tribes increased and over the generations, the roots of each tribe become untraceable. .
“Bulk of the population lives on the verge of starvation most of the time. Let a famine come along and millions die unless they are assisted by government or relief organizations. Under such conditions, there is small wonder if whole
families‟ and tribes have resorted to criminal methods to get a living. Their „Crime‟ never paid beyond filling their belly. Police in Nellore District could easily trace „Yanadi criminals‟ through the theft of cooked food in the kitchens. They were never organised like thuggi Gangs as falsely claimed by the Colonial police. Otherwise they would have been another Russian Mafia emerged from the free labour and slavery in the „Gulags‟ of Siberia, during the Communist regime. When the first batches were brought into the Criminal settlements, most of the men were clad in rags. The women had hardly enough clothing to cover their shame and the, children up to 12 years of the age or so were stark naked." Because they were deprived of all the means of subsistence, lack of means of livelihood and non availability of work. If any work found, they were weaned away by the society due to the criminal stigma, they were not allowed to buy or own any property or wealth.
Survival of Nomads: In pursuance of their living, Nomads seem to take to three courses for survival. They become religious mendicants, beggars or criminals. Beggary possibly originated as an occupation from early unsettled criminal groups. Chief amongst the Criminal Tribe groups who were religious mendicants and beggars are the Bairagis of Bhopal, who roam all over India and belong to many north Indian castes; the Telugu Jogis, the Bawarias of Northern India, the Vaishnavite Dasari of Madras, the Kintali Kalingas of South India, the Nokkars and others. Belonging to this group are also a small group of bards who were professional historians. Only small sections of the Bhats of Rajasthan have been classified as one of the criminal Tribes. They had their own work, which they had been doing decades ago. The occupations generally taken to by criminal and Nomadic groups are buffalo breeding, donkey-rearing, pig rearing, dealing in milk and butter, weaving, mat making and basket weaving, rope-making, grinding, stones-making, trading in beads and bangles, scavenging and singing. They seem to have taken even to more unusual occupations, requiring special skills, to eke out their livelihood. They became acrobats, snake charmers, jugglers, tumblers, drummers, fortune tellers and tattooers. It is likely that some of these ex-criminal groups took to religious mendicancy, beggary, prostitution and all kinds of crime, only when driven to the extreme. When they found opportunities, at least some of them left crime and took to agriculture, like the Bediyas and the Bawanies of Northern India. Some of them like the Doms, Kaikidis and Pasis of Uttar Pradesh have settled down after some experience of criminal life.
Amongst the ex-criminal groups are the Ahris of the Punjab, the Baurias of Northern India, the Nirashikaris of Madras, the Ambalgars of Trichinopoly and others who were hunting groups. Some of them even now continue their traditional hunting life to some extent. The Irulars of South India are forest dwellers. Criminal groups amongst the fisher folk are mostly on the rivers of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh they are Kevat, Malla, Majhi, Raikwar, Bind and Kashyap etc. who are not always on the coast line. Dhenwars of the Punjab
take their name from Dhiwar, a fisherman. They are also boatmen and water carriers like the Rajbhar of U P. So are the Mallahs of Uttar Pradesh.
Amongst the important gypsy-like groups in India are the Bedyars in the North and East, the Haburas and Kanjars of the North, the Budubukulas of Madras, the Kepumaries of South India and the Bhatus and Sansias. Amongst the other criminal groups with nomadic habits are the Doms of Northern India, the Koravars and Oddars of Southern India and some Vanjara cattle breeding groups.
Amongst the cattle breeding but criminally inclined nomads are the Ahirs and the Heris of the Punjab, sections of the well known Ahirs, and the Ghosis of Uttar Pradesh who are supposed to be Ahir converts to Islam.
In centres of the ancient Hindu civilization, the aboriginal races have become the low-castes and out-castes on which the social fabric of India rests. A few of them, however, still preserve their ethical identity as wandering tribes or jugglers, baskets-weavers, and fortune-tellers. Thus the Náts, Bediyas, and other gipsy clans are recognized to this day as distinct from the surrounding Hindu population.
Nomads in the Colonial period: In earlier times, their life was easier, but gradually with the advance of civilization in the country the struggle for existence became more and more acute for these nomadic people and they had to face increased hardships. The newly emerging global economic system does not allow communities to lead their traditional life, with the result that nomadic communities have lost their livelihoods and independence. Folk artists of the past have become destitute; artisans who supplied agricultural implements or weapons of warfare are reduced to beggars; pastoralists who once owned large flocks of animals are now landless labourers or marginal farmers. They suffer a constant, relentless humiliation at the hands of „respectable‟ people. These laws were enacted as crime was considered a „hereditary profession‟.
Current position of Criminal Tribes or DNTs
There are nearly 820 tribes accounting 10 per cent of India‟s population this is partly a positive affirmation towards the reservation issue. As per the 2016 NCDNT interim report, some communities want to be recognised as SCs, STs or OBCs. But there are also those who want recognition as DNTs, SNTs & NTs.
There are still a number of Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes which have not been included in any one of these categories. Instead, they are placed at par with the communities of the general category. These groups could be divided into two sections, i.e., (i) Nomadic; and (ii) Settled. The nomadic groups included the gypsy-like tribes such as Sansis, Kanjars, etc., and „had an innate preference for a life of adventure‟.
The new forest policy of the Government of India has served to displace hunting and gathering communities from the forests by creating National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, and protected areas. Hunting-gathering communities have lived along with wildlife in the forests since ages. Today‟s hunting-gathering communities are in a state of penury as they have not only lost their traditional means of livelihood, but their very survival is also in jeopardy.
The issue of identification of the Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes [DN-NT-SNT] is complex. The State Governments have a separate and designated list of „Denotified and Nomadic Tribes‟, and it appear that they do not follow any well defined criteria for their classification. It has been observed that the inclusion and exclusion of communities in such lists was done on political considerations rather than on fair and uniform criteria.
Measures to improve the conditions: DNTs are different culturally and socially, from the others. In other words, these communities deserve a separate treatment and plan for affirmative action. Freedom is not the end of an important and difficult problem. The achievement of legal justice in many cases is not, the guarantee of social justice. First lapse occurred when the Constitution made special provisions for the welfare of the tribal population and the backward classes, but forgot to include the Settlements and other ex-criminal groups amongst the Scheduled Castes and Tribes. The Government should now consider them "specially privileged groups" for a certain period of time, and give them special opportunities for rehabilitation, of leadership, organised aid, and adequate resources to enable them to achieve good social health. The end of the Settlement System does not lead to the extinction of a problem which had continued for over a century. The behaviour patterns of some of the ex-criminal groups may not change early; the police administration may not easily reconcile itself to the spirit and requirements of the new policy; and society, above all, may still continue to fear these groups and look upon them with the old stigmas and prejudices. Restore them to normal living conditions in the appropriate regions in which they may choose to live.
Real rehabilitation is not achieved till a human community grows its social roots and settles down with some degree of confidence and security to carry on the normal struggle for existence together with opportunities for creative self-expression and social, economic and cultural development of the entire group.
These need not be suitable only for the promotion of agriculture; they could be grasslands, or forest areas which could be utilised for animal breeding, forestry and hunting. It is desirable that some of these areas are included within the Community Development Projects, with special programmes for comprehensive socio-economic development as well as for the special treatment of the problems of the ex-criminal groups. Special extension services and vocational training should be available to prepare them for an efficient economic life. Health and education of the community must be looked after; and well-thought out social
education programmes including the use of mass communication methods and audio-visual aids may bring about speedy results. The rehabilitation of children requires the existence of a congenial physical environment; absence of serious maladjustments in the physical and human environments; adequate care, protection, affection and training during childhood; proper attention to the problem of sex, physical growth and mental development; opportunities for recreation and companionship; and training for vocation and work life after the age of 14 years. The efforts and resources spent on merely maintaining law and order by keeping them segregated may well be spent on more scientific and painstaking measures for comprehensive social and economic rehabilitation of the ex-criminal groups. And this is possible through a separate Ministry for the CTs and unless these groups were included in the Constitution, along with quick enumeration of their population censes, allocation of budgets and establishing executive systems becomes almost impossible.
Evolution of Ex. Criminal Tribes as Denotified & Nomadic Communities: After the criminal tribes act was repealed in the year 1952, CTs were known as ex-criminal tribes. Kaka Kalelkar Commission in paragraph 48 of its report suggested that the erstwhile „Criminal Tribes‟ should not be called „Tribes‟ nor should the names „Criminal‟ or „Ex-Criminal‟ is attached to them. They could be called „Denotified Communities‟.
But, it‟s a question to be raised, whether Kaka Kalelkar Committee Report is authentic? Because, Government of India never accepted this Committee report or recommendations. Hence, the classification of ex criminal Tribes as Denotified and Nomadic Communities deems to be invalid and the tribes to be included in to the constitution as Denotified, Nomadic „Tribes‟, in which Semi-nomadic, Pastoral, Peripatetic & Forest Tribes were also included.
Birth of OBC: OBC were not born till the First Backward Classes Commission set up by a presidential order on 29 January 1953 under the chairmanship of Kaka Kalelkar, adhering to Article 340 of the Constitution of India.
The Kalelkar Commission was asked among others (1) To determine the criteria to be adopted in considering whether any sections of the people of India should be treated as socially 'and educationally Backward Classes, (2) To prepare a list of such classes for the whole of India in accordance with such criteria and (3) To examine the difficulties of such Backward Classes and to recommend steps to be taken for the amelioration of their condition.
In its report submitted in 1955, the Commission observed that, besides the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, there were other communities, castes or social groups which were also socially and educationally backward. In this connection, it interpreted the term "socially and educationally backward classes as relating primarily to social hierarchy based on Caste" and said that such an interpretation is not only correct but inevitable and no other interpretation "is Possible". Commission used “Classes" synonymously with "Castes" and "Communities" and prepared the lists of the Backward Classes by taking "Caste as Units".
While rejecting the castes, the Government of India stated that the views of the Commission were vague and wide to be of much practical use. Thereafter, the Government of India directed the Deputy Registrar General, Government of India, to conduct a pilot survey and prepare a list of socially and educationally Backward Classes on the basis of "Occupations". But the Deputy Registrar General said in his report that it was impossible to draw any precise and complete list of "Occupation", the members of which could be treated as socially backward.
Since the two commissions failed to suggest satisfactory criteria for determining the social and economic backwardness, The Central Government ultimately took a decision that no all India lists of Backward Classes should be drawn up, nor any reservation made in the Central Government service for any group of Backward Classes other than the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Consequently, on August 14th, 1961, the Ministry of Home Affairs addressed all the State Governments stating, "while the State Governments have the discretion to choose their own criteria for defining backwardness, in the view of the Government of India it would be better to apply economic tests than to go by caste", Regarding the preparation of lists of Backward Classes it was observed: "Even if the Central Government were to specify under Article 338 (3) certain groups of people as belonging to other Backward Classes , it will be still open to every State Government to draw up its own lists for the purposes of Articles 15 and 16. As therefore, the State Governments may adhere to their lists, any all-India list drawn up by the Central Government would have no practical utility".
Consequently some of the states appointed Commissions for the purpose of determining tests to ascertain the social and educational Backward Classes of people in the State who deserve special treatment, while Kalelkar Commission formulated certain criteria for identifying socially and educationally Backward Classes. Ultimately each state came up with its classification and criteria.
Backward Classes today
Other Backward Classes (OBCs) are called as Back ward Classes (BCs) in the Southern states. Poorer sections among the BCs were sub- divided as Most Backward Classes (MBCs) in Bihar they were named as Extremely Backward classes (EBCs).
Andhra Pradesh and Telengana States categorised Backward Classes as A, B, C, D, E. List of Socially and Educationally Backward Classes in A.P. (As per. G.O.Ms.No.1793, Education Dept., dated 23-09-1970 as modified from time to time) (List enclosed as Annexure-2)
GROUP-A: Exclusively for Aboriginal Tribes, Vimuktha Jathis, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes etc in principle. But in reality there are service castes like Chakali, Mangali, Dependent castes like Kunapuli (caste legend tellers), Patra (Utensil makers), Pambala, Dammali (S C Drummers) & Fisher people, who were neither in the Nomadic nor in the erstwhile CT Lists, were included in the A lists. Those castes other than Tribes, Vimuktha Jathis, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes to be removed from the BC-A list.
Group-B: Farming and weaving are two major sectors, accessed lion share in the economic inputs pumped by the Governments. While, farming sector subsidies were pocketed by the upper caste Sudra landed castes (Kamma,Kapu, velama, Raju & Reddy), weaving sector subsidies were pocketed by one vociferous Padmasali community, while other weaving communities like Devanga, Jandra, Kaikala, Thogata or Pattu Sali were left with nothing. All the Positions in the weaver bodies or Boards were filled with Padmasalis, while others were left out and even today majority of them are working as wage or piece rate labourers in the power or hand looms and these are the sections committing suicide among the Weavers. While Padmasalis were mostly settled as master weavers, Power loom owners and cloth merchants. Keeping both these sections in BC (B) is against the Social justice. Hence it‟s advised to include Padmasalis in the BC list, while all others in the MBC list.
Living conditions of Yata, a Semi Nomadic Taddy Tappers community are deplorable. Some sanskritised call them as Sri Sayana and those economically forward call themselves as Setti Balija and competing with the Gouds. Yatas, and all other sub castes among the Taddy tappers may be divided. Those who want to join the Gouds can go to BC list and remaining Yata could be continued in the BC-A list as nomads.
Kuruma or Kuruba is a Semi Nomadic (Pastoral) Shepherd caste could be included in to the BC-A as semi nomads.
Economically settled Silpis Viswa karma and Viswa Bramhin may be separated and included in the BC. Ausula or Kamsali, Kammari, Kanchari, Vadla or Vadra or Vadrangi could in the MBCs.
Likewise Lodh, Lodhi is ex criminal Community which is to be included in the BC-A and DNT
Uppara or Sagara, Vanjara, Nagavamsam could be included in the BC-A by removing from the BC-D list, since poosala community was already included in the BC-A and all of them to be included in the Nt & DNT list.
The Muslim, Christian & Sikh (Religious Minority) communities denoted in the Sachar Committe Report as erstwhile Aborigine, Nomadic or Denotified Tribes (Faquir, Fhakir Budbudki, Ghanta Fhakirlu, Turaka Budbudki, Darvesh, Fakeer
Garadi Muslim, Pamulavallu, Kani- Kattuvallu," Gosangi Muslim, Guddi Eluguvallu, Elugu Bantuvallu, Musalman Keelu Gurralavallu, Borewale, Deera Phakirlu, Bonthala, Turaka Kasha, Kakkukotte Zinka Saibulu, Chakkitaka nevale, Thirugatigantla Rollaku Kakku Kottevaru, Pattar Phodulu, Chakketakare, Thuraka Kasha and Sikligar.) to be removed from BC-E and included in the BC-A List and subsequently in NT & DNT list.
Appeals to the Hon. Justice (Retired) Rohini Commission
1. Divide the Other Backward Castes (O B Cs) in to three Sub-Categories viz: BCs, MBCs and DNTs (Denotified, Nomadic & Semi-Nomadic Tribes) and provide separate Political, economic and employment reservations as per the OBC population census enumerated in the year 2011.
2. Include Denotified, Nomadic & Semi-Nomadic Tribes in the Ist Schedule of the Constitution of India at par with SCs and STs.
3. Include all well-settled OBC communities already accessing Political power, Social Position and economically forward in the BC List.
4. All the Non–farming Communities, few in numbers, service castes, Artisans, dependents on the Traditional or Caste occupations, along with small scale producer and dependent castes among the BCs, and those sedentery but poor and not included in any category- should be included in to the MBC list.
5. All the DNTs (Denotified, Nomadic & Semi-Nomadic Tribes) irrespective of caste or religion should be included in to the DNT (Denotified, Nomadic & Semi-Nomadic Tribes) list.
6. Exclude SC, ST religious Minorities among the Muslim and Christian from the OBC lists and include in their respective SC or ST category.
7. Those Muslims (other than the NTs & DNTs) in BC-E Category should be included in the MBC category.
M. Subba Rao Nellore
1. Depressed classes List 1930.
2. List of Backward classes in Andhra Pradesh
3. Draft list of Denotified, Nomadic and Semi Nomadic Tribes of which includes list of CTs in the Ayyangar commission Report as Annexure-II, Page No.48.
Sources of Information and Data for preparing this Memorandum:
1. (Census in Colonial India and the Birth of Caste, Padmanabh Samarendra, Economic & Political Weekly EPW August 13, 2011 vol xlvI no 33);
2. Understanding Denotified and Nomadic Tribes- M.Subbarao
3. CRIME AND CRIMINAL TRIBES ACTS- Sodh ganga website
4. Criminal Tribes of United Provinces, PAJKAJ KUMAR MISHRA.
5. C.B.Mamoria, Tribal Demography in India, Bombay, 1957, p.29. .
6. Files. Superintendent of Police, Crime Branch, Hyderabad, Vide No. 1185/CIB 58, dt. 27.2.1958. APSA.
7. V.Raghavaiah, The problem of criminal tribes, Op. cit.,
8. Madras Police Administration Report for the year 1877, Madras 1888, P.I.
10.EX-CRIMINAL GROUPS IN INDIA D R . B . H . M E H T A
11. A STUDY OF CRIMINAL TRIBES IN INDIA. Sodh ganga website
12. Ambedkar‟s Biography , Dr. Dhananjay kheer
13. Kaka Kalelkar Committe Report
14. Balakrishna Renke Commission Report
15. National Commission for DNSNT Interim report
16. Mandal Commission Report
17. CHAPTER- IV, BACKWARD CLASS COMMISSIONS - AND MODALITIES FOR IMPLEMENTION, Sodhgnaga website